Batteries can be broken down into 7 basic catagories.
Lead acid: car batteries, ups batteries, wheel chair batteries.
Carbon Zinc: general purpose consumer batteries
Alkaline: heavy duty general purpose consumer batteries
NIMH: Nickel Metal Hydride rechargable batteries
NICAD: Nickel Cadmium Rechargable Batteries
Lithium Ion: Generally cell phone and portable device rechargable battries.
Zinc Air: These are most comonly used in hearing aids and medical devices.
There are many places that will pay for lead acid batteries. These are either sold per battery or by the pound, and some places pay up to $7.00 each for used car batteries.
Also another great way to get paid for lead acid batteries is to recondition them. Most of the time when car, motorcycle, marine ect batteries die, it is because of sulfation. This is a build up of corrosion on the lead plates inside the battery. There are proven processes available to remove this and restore the battery to almost 100%. Batteries are expensive and people will pay for restored batteries.
Here is a very well written guide to battery restoration.
The Carbon Zinc, and Alkaline batteries on the list are usually used in consumer goods in the more common sizes AAA, AA, C, D cell sizes. There are exporters who will purchase these by the ton.
The rechargable batteries NIMH, NICAD, and Lithium ion, are mostly used in portable electronic devices and power tools and often may have to be removed from manufactured plastic enclosures in order to be recycled. But they have the best recyclable value. Some of the metal alloys that make up these batteries are expensive to manufacture, therefore new battery makers will pay for this material.